The History of Italy has begun more than 2,5 thousand years ago. During this time the country experienced both the peak of its power and the decline of the civilization, but even now in Italy you can see traces of that great nation, which once was Italy. However, despite the fact that Italy had passed the peak of its development, now it is quite a powerful state in all senses of the word.
The History of Rome and the Italian civilization began about 7-8 century BC. In those days in the territory of Italy prevailed the city-states as in Greece. Italy was inhabited by many tribes, but one of them was destined to become the basis of the future great empire.
The Basis of the future mega-state became the city of Rome. Being founded in 753 BC by Latin-Sabine tribes at first Rome was a kingdom. Subsequently, the tsarist regime was overthrown and was established a republic.
After the establishment of republic Rome’s government began its expansion in Italy. After the conquest of Italy, Rome continued its expansion in the Mediterranean, which led to a number of wars with the Carthaginians, with the result that the latter was destroyed, and the boundaries of the Roman state expanded considerably.
At the turn of the new and old eras Rome became the Empire, which was greatly facilitated by Julius Caesar. Caesar Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. Empire remained the most powerful state until the 3 rd century. By the end of the 4th century the Roman Empire was completely disintegrated into East and West Empires. And if East has existed for more than a thousand years, the West during the 5th century was being attacked by barbarians, and in 476 has ceased to exist when last emperor of the West Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus was deposed.
In Italy was founded a barbaric state. The Christianity that long before became the official religion was of great importance in the state and often clashed with the secular power. Later, Italy was a part of the empire of Charlemagne and Otton and his sons. The dispute between the papacy and the emperors led to the elimination of imperial power. In Italy began the period of fragmentation, which ended only in the 19th century.
During the Renaissance in Italy the Duchy of Milan, Florence and Venetian republic, Papal States and the Kingdom of Naples were the most powerful states. In the 16 century a large part of Italy became a part of the Habsburg Empire.
Due to the opening of America the largest trade routes shifted to the Atlantic, and the Italian cities fell into decay. In the late 18th - early 19th centuries Italian states were included in the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte. After the Congress of Vienna there was no change in the structure of Italy and then the Italians began to seek ways of uniting the state themselves.
The period of consolidation that began in the mid-19th century, ended in 1870. Earlier in 1861, Victor Emmanuel became the first king of Italy. Also, were annexed the Papal States and Italy’s capital moved to Rome. Virtually the entire ethnic territory of Italy was now again under the rule of Rome.
Since that time began the restoration of the former greatness of Italy and its power which lasted until the First World War. Being on the side of the Entente in this war, Italy lost it rather than won, despite the victory of the coalition. With the wave of the revanchist sentiments in 1922 the Fascists came to power, headed by Benito Mussolini. Under the regime of Mussolini, the king was under the control of the party, was reached an agreement with the church on the autonomy of the Vatican, and also made a number of economic success and annexed Ethiopia. Later was occupied Albania, and Rome entered the so-called axis with Berlin and Tokyo. After the beginning of the Second World War Italy almost immediately lost its possessions in Africa and in 1943 surrendered to the Allies, and Mussolini was ousted from power.
After the war, Italy had been robbed of her possessions and was practically in its modern version. In 1946 the king abdicated the throne and left the country. In 1952 Italy became a member of the European Coal and Steel Community, and in 1957 signed the Treaty establishing the Euratom and the European Common Market, the foundations of the future EU. In 1993 it was officially formed. In 1999 Italy adopted the single European currency Euro. And in 2007 it became a member of a new Mediterranean Union. Also, Italy is a member of NATO since 1949, the Council of Europe, UN and other regional and international organizations, including the Schengen Agreement.
The Prime Minister of Italy at the moment is Silvio Berlusconi, and president, who nominally heads the state, is Giorgio Napolitano.